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During this era, the "freestyle" movement in skateboarding began to splinter off and develop into a much more specialized discipline, characterized by the development of a wide assortment of flat-ground tricks.
As a result of the "vert" skating movement, skate parks had to contend with high liability costs that led to many park closures.
In response, vert skaters started making their own ramps, while freestyle skaters continued to evolve their flatland style. Thus, by the beginning of the s, skateboarding had once again declined in popularity.
This period was fueled by skateboard companies that were run by skateboarders. The focus was initially on vert ramp skateboarding.
The invention of the no-hands aerial later known as the ollie by Alan Gelfand in Florida in ,  and the almost parallel development of the grabbed aerial by George Orton and Tony Alva in California, made it possible for skaters to perform airs on vertical ramps.
While this wave of skateboarding was sparked by commercialized vert ramp skating, a majority of people who skateboarded during this period didn't ride vert ramps.
As most people could not afford to build vert ramps, or did not have access to nearby ramps, street skating increased in popularity.
Freestyle skating remained healthy throughout this period, with pioneers such as Rodney Mullen inventing many of the basic tricks that would become the foundation of modern street skating, such as the "Impossible" and the " kickflip ".
In response to the tensions created by this confluence of skateboarding "genres", a rapid evolution occurred in the late s to accommodate the street skater.
Since few skateparks were available to skaters at this time, street skating pushed skaters to seek out shopping centers and public and private property as their "spot" to skate.
Public opposition, in which businesses, governments, and property owners have banned skateboarding on properties under their jurisdiction or ownership, would progressively intensify over the following decades.
During this period, numerous skateboarders - as well as companies in the industry - paid tribute to the scenes of Marty McFly skateboarding in the film Back to the Future for its influence in this regard.
Examples can be seen in promotional material, in interviews in which professional skateboarders cite the film as an initiation into the action sport, and in the public's recognition of the film's influence.
Skateboarding during the s became dominated by street skateboarding. The wheels are made of an extremely hard polyurethane , with hardness durometer approximately 99A.
The wheel sizes are relatively small so that the boards are lighter, and the wheels' inertia is overcome quicker, thus making tricks more manageable.
Board styles have changed dramatically since the s but have remained mostly alike since the mids. The contemporary shape of the skateboard is derived from the freestyle boards of the s with a largely symmetrical shape and relatively narrow width.
This form had become standard by the mid '90s. By skateboarding had gained so much popularity that more American people under the age of 18 rode skateboards In Go Skateboarding Day was founded in southern California by the International Association of Skateboard Companies  to promote skateboarding throughout the world.
It is celebrated annually on June 21 "to define skateboarding as the rebellious, creative celebration of independence it continues to be. Many cities also began implementing recreation plans and statutes during this time period, as part of their vision for local parks and communities to make public lands more available, in particular, for skateboarding, inviting skateboarders to come in off of the city streets and into organized skateboarding activity areas.
Efforts have been taken to improve recognition of the cultural heritage as well as the positive effects of encouraging skateboarding within designated spaces.
In , the John F. Recently, barefoot skating has been experiencing a revival. Many skaters ride barefoot, particularly in summer and in warmer countries, such as South Africa , Australia , Spain and South America.
The plastic penny board is intended to be ridden barefoot, as is the surfboard-inspired hamboard.
In the s, electric skateboards became popular, along with self-balancing unicycles in a board format.
The sport of skateboarding will make its olympic debut at the Tokyo Olympic Games , with both men's and women's events.
Competition will take place in two disciplines: street and park. With the evolution of skateparks and ramp skating, the skateboard began to change.
Early skate tricks had consisted mainly of two-dimensional freestyle manoeuvres like riding on only two wheels "wheelie" or "manual" , spinning only on the back wheels a "pivot" , high jumping over a bar and landing on the board again, also known as a "hippie jump", long jumping from one board to another, often over small barrels or fearless teenagers , or slalom.
Another popular trick was the Bertlemann slide, named after Larry Bertelemann's surfing manoeuvres. In , skateboarding was transformed by the invention of the ollie by Alan "Ollie" Gelfand.
Gelfand and his revolutionary maneuvers caught the attention of the West Coast skaters and the media where it began to spread worldwide. The ollie was adapted to flat ground by Rodney Mullen in Mullen also invented the "Magic Flip," which was later renamed the kickflip , as well as many other tricks including, the Kickflip , which is a pop shove-it and a kickflip in the same motion.
The flat ground ollie allowed skateboarders to perform tricks in mid-air without any more equipment than the skateboard itself, it has formed the basis of many street skating tricks.
A recent development in the world of trick skating is the , which was first ever landed by Tom Schaar in Skateboarding was popularized by the skateboarding cult classic Thrashin'.
Thrashin' also had a direct impact on Lords of Dogtown , as Catherine Hardwicke , who directed Lords of Dogtown , was hired by Winters to work on Thrashin' as a production designer where she met, worked with and befriended many famous skaters including the real Tony Alva , Tony Hawk , Christian Hosoi and Steve Caballero.
These films have helped improve the reputation of skateboarding youth, depicting individuals of this subculture as having a positive outlook on life, prone to poking harmless fun at each other, and engaging in healthy sportsman's competition.
According to the film, lack of respect, egotism and hostility towards fellow skateboarders is generally frowned upon, albeit each of the characters and as such, proxies of the "stereotypical" skateboarder have a firm disrespect for authority and for rules in general.
Gleaming the Cube , a movie starring Christian Slater as a skateboarding teen investigating the death of his adopted Vietnamese brother, was somewhat of an iconic landmark to the skateboarding genre of the era.
Skateboarding was, at first, tied to the culture of surfing. As skateboarding spread across the United States to places unfamiliar with surfing or surfing culture, it developed an image of its own.
For example, the classic film short Video Days portrayed skateboarders as reckless rebels. California duo Jan and Dean recorded the song " Sidewalk Surfin' " in , which is the Beach Boys song " Catch a Wave " with new lyrics associated with skateboarding.
Certain cities still oppose the building of skate parks in their neighborhoods, for fear of increased crime and drugs in the area.
The rift between the old image of skateboarding and a newer one is quite visible: magazines such as Thrasher portray skateboarding as dirty, rebellious, and still firmly tied to punk , while other publications, Transworld Skateboarding as an example, paint a more diverse and controlled picture of skateboarding.
As more professional skaters use hip hop , reggae , or hard rock music accompaniment in their videos, many urban youths, hip-hop fans, reggae fans, and hard rock fans are also drawn to skateboarding, further diluting the sport's punk image.
Group spirit supposedly influences the members of this community. In presentations of this sort, showcasing of criminal tendencies is absent, and no attempt is made to tie extreme sports to any kind of illegal activity.
Female based skateboarding groups also exist, such as Brujas which is based in New York City. Many women use their participation in skate crews to perform an alternative form of femininity.
The increasing availability of technology is apparent within the skateboarding community. Many skateboarders record and edit videos of themselves and friends skateboarding.
However, part of this culture is to not merely replicate but to innovate; emphasis is placed on finding new places and landing new tricks.
Skateboarding video games have also become very popular in skateboarding culture. Whilst early skateboarders generally rode barefoot , preferring direct foot-to-board contact, and some skaters continue to do so, one of the early leading trends associated with the sub-culture of skateboarding itself, was the sticky-soled slip-on skate shoe , most popularized by Sean Penn 's skateboarding character from the film Fast Times at Ridgemont High.
But skaters often lacked traction, which led to foot injuries. While the skate shoes design afforded better connection and traction with the deck, skaterboarders themselves could often be identified when wearing the shoes, with Tony Hawk once saying, "If you were wearing Vans shoes in 86, you were a skateboarder"  Because of its connection with skateboarding, Vans financed the legendary skateboarding documentary Dogtown and Z-Boys and was the first sneaker company to endorse a professional skateboarder Stacy Peralta.
Vans has a long history of being a major sponsor of many of skateboarding's competitions and events throughout skateboarding's history as well, including the Vans Warped Tour and the Vans Triple Crown Series.
As it eventually became more apparent that skateboarding had a particular identity with a style of shoe, other brands of shoe companies began to specifically design skate shoes for functionality and style to further enhance the experience and culture of skateboarding including such brands as; Converse , Nike , DC Shoes , Globe , Adidas , Zoo York and World Industries.
Many professional skateboarders are designed a pro-model skate shoe, with their name on it, once they have received a skateboarding sponsorship after becoming notable skateboarders.
Some shoe companies involved with skateboarding, like Sole Technology , an American footwear company that makes the Etnies skate shoe brand, further distinguish themselves in the market by collaborating with local cities to open public Skateparks , such as the etnies skatepark in Lake Forest, California.
Individuality and a self-expressed casual style have always been cultural values for skateboarders, as uniforms and jerseys are not typically worn.
Some skateboards during that time were manufactured with company logo's or stickers across the top of the deck of the skateboard, as griptape was not initially used for construction.
There were several artistic skateboarding pioneers that had an influence on the culture of skateboarding during the s, that transformed skateboard-deck art like Jim Phillips, whose edgy comic-book style "Screaming Hand", not only became the main logo for Santa Cruz Skateboards , but eventually transcended into tattoos of the same image for thousands of people and vinyl collectible figurines over the years.
Over the years skateboard-deck art has continued to influence and expand the culture of skateboarding, as many people began collecting skateboards based on their artistic value and nostalgia.
Productions of limited editions with particular designs and types of collectible prints that can be hung on the wall, have been created by such famous artists as Andy Warhol and Keith Haring.
In January , Sotheby's in New York auctioned  the full set of the skateboard deck designs ever sold by Supreme, collected by Ryan Fuller.
Skateboards, along with other small-wheeled transportation such as in-line skates and scooters, suffer a safety problem: riders may easily be thrown from small cracks and outcroppings in pavement, especially where the cracks run across the direction of travel.
Hitting such an irregularity is the major cause of falls and injuries. Severe injuries are relatively rare. Skating as a form of transportation exposes the skateboarder to the dangers of other traffic.
Skateboarders on the street may be hit by other vehicles or may fall into vehicular traffic. Skateboarders also occasionally pose a risk to other pedestrians and traffic.
If the skateboarder falls, the skateboard may roll or fly into another person. A skateboarder who collides with a person who is walking or biking may injure or, rarely, kill that person.
Many jurisdictions require skateboarders to wear bicycle helmets to reduce the risk of head injuries and death. Other protective gear, such as wrist guards , also reduce injury.
Some medical researchers have proposed restricting skateboarding to designated, specially designed areas, to reduce the number and severity of injuries, and to eliminate injuries caused by motor vehicles or to other pedestrians.
The use, ownership and sale of skateboards were forbidden in Norway from to because of the high number of injuries caused by boards.
The ban led skateboarders to construct ramps in the forest and other secluded areas to avoid the police. There was, however, one legal skatepark in the country in Frogner Park in Oslo.
The use of skateboards solely as a form of transportation is often associated with the longboard. The United States Marine Corps tested the usefulness of commercial off-the-shelf skateboards during urban combat military exercises in the late s in a program called Urban Warrior ' Their special purpose was "for maneuvering inside buildings in order to detect tripwires and sniper fire".
Trampboarding is a variant of skateboarding that uses a board without the trucks and the wheels on a trampoline. Using the bounce of the trampoline gives height to perform tricks, whereas in skateboarding you need to make the height by performing an ollie.
Trampboarding is seen on YouTube in numerous videos. Swing boarding is the activity where a skateboard deck is suspended from a pivot point above the rider which allows the rider to swing about that pivot point.
The board swings in an arc which is a similar movement to riding a half pipe. The incorporation of a harness and frame allows the rider to perform turns and spins all while flying through the air.
Skateboarding damages urban terrain features such as curbs, benches, and ledges when skateboarders perform " grinds " and other tricks on these surfaces.
The enactment of ordinances and the posting of signs stating "Skateboarding is not allowed" have also become common methods to discourage skateboarding in public areas in many cities, to protect pedestrians and property.
Freedom Plaza has become a popular location for skateboarding, although the activity is illegal and has resulted in police actions. A professional skateboarder promoted on Facebook the use of governmental sites for the prohibited activity during the federal government shutdown in the United States.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Action sport on skateboards. For the magazine, see Skateboarder magazine. Play media.
Main article: Skateboarding trick. See also: Skate shoe. For styles of skateboarding, see Skateboarding styles.
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August 6, Retrieved August 8, Archived from the original on February 14, Retrieved December 13, Washington, D. April Archived from the original PDF on March 4, Retrieved March 29, Skateboarding damages stonework, walls, steps, and sculpture in some areas and presents a persistent law enforcement and management challenge.
Damaged areas include stone facing on memorials, benches, and other surfaces. Moreover, popular websites advertise the attractiveness of these areas for skateboarding, which indicates the large scope of this challenge.
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Grove Press. Retrieved November 10, Lobster Press. Ulric the Jarl William O. John Joly. The Scientific American Boy A.
Russell Alexander Russell Bond. Ariadne Florentina John Ruskin. British informal a young person who typically wears baggy clothes and spends a lot of time skateboarding.
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